Product examples – De Todo Un Poco http://detodounpoco.net/ Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:37 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://detodounpoco.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/cropped-icon-32x32.png Product examples – De Todo Un Poco http://detodounpoco.net/ 32 32 Measuring the potency of cell and gene therapy products https://detodounpoco.net/measuring-the-potency-of-cell-and-gene-therapy-products/ Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:37 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/measuring-the-potency-of-cell-and-gene-therapy-products/ [ad_1] The last decade has seen a rapid development of cell and gene therapies (CGT), which now offer promising solutions for diseases that could not be adequately treated by traditional drugs. Potency assays that measure product-specific biological activity in a disease-relevant system are required by regulatory agencies to grant approval to CGT products. What is […]]]>

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The last decade has seen a rapid development of cell and gene therapies (CGT), which now offer promising solutions for diseases that could not be adequately treated by traditional drugs. Potency assays that measure product-specific biological activity in a disease-relevant system are required by regulatory agencies to grant approval to CGT products.

What is cell and gene therapy?

CGTs are composed of a diverse group of drugs. Cell therapies (including ex-vivo gene therapies) involve the transfer of cells with a relevant function into the patient. Cells can have different origins, i.e. human (autologous or allogeneic), different stages of differentiation, i.e. stem cells or differentiated cells, and can be genetically modified to exert the desired therapeutic effect. In genetically modified cell therapy, a functional transgene is transfected into cells ex-vivo using viral (eg lentiviruses) or non-viral (eg electroporation) vectors. Then the modified cells are administered to the patient where the transgene will promote a therapeutic effect. Examples of such therapies include chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and genetically engineered human stem cells (HSCs).

Gene therapies, in turn, involve the direct administration of genetic material to the patient to regulate or modify somatic cell genes in situ. Gene therapies generally target well-characterized genetic diseases. Gene augmentation therapies aim to replace a missing or aberrant protein in the cell to modulate the disease state. In this case, the transgene usually contains a DNA sequence that must be transcribed into mRNA and translated into a functional protein. In gene silencing gene therapies, the transgene expresses a small RNA (eg, microRNA or small interfering RNA) that reduces expression of an endogenous gene in target cells to modulate the disease state. The therapeutic transgene can be delivered to the patient using different viral vectors such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) or non-viral vectors such as lipid nanoparticles. An example of gene therapy is gene replacement for spinal muscular atrophy.

Why is it important to measure power?

As with all pharmaceuticals, CGT products must meet stringent safety guidelines to ensure their efficacy and safety. Potency tests for CGT products should measure molecular, biochemical, immunological, phenotypic, physical and biological characteristics as well as relevant therapeutic activity or the product’s intended biological effect or mechanism of action (MOA). It is important to note that CGT products are complex and may rely on two or more modes of action, in which case each must be measured individually. Potency dosages can be either in vitro Where live tests and are essential during several stages of the product life cycle, from early development to clinical trials. Potency testing is needed for batch release testing, to show conformation testing, comparability studies, and stability testing. These tests are used to demonstrate that only products that meet these standards will be used during all phases of clinical investigation and after market approval.

To learn more about common challenges, the importance of selecting the appropriate tests, and the analytical tools available for developing power tests for CGT products, read the full PDF article here.

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3 steps for farmers to reduce their dependence on artificial fertilizers https://detodounpoco.net/3-steps-for-farmers-to-reduce-their-dependence-on-artificial-fertilizers/ Thu, 24 Nov 2022 01:01:23 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/3-steps-for-farmers-to-reduce-their-dependence-on-artificial-fertilizers/ [ad_1] Farmers are looking for ways to reduce artificial fertilizer rates as prices soar to record highs to reduce production costs and improve soil sustainability. Cultivation currently relies on conventional agronomic disciplines, coupled with high inputs and good yields. However, by improving efficiency, replacing alternatives, and redesigning farming systems with the inclusion of legumes, farmers […]]]>

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Farmers are looking for ways to reduce artificial fertilizer rates as prices soar to record highs to reduce production costs and improve soil sustainability.

Cultivation currently relies on conventional agronomic disciplines, coupled with high inputs and good yields.

However, by improving efficiency, replacing alternatives, and redesigning farming systems with the inclusion of legumes, farmers are able to reduce their dependence on costly fertilizer expenses.

Independent plant and soil health scientist Joel Williams says, “Regardless of farming type and starting point, we can all benefit from using this framework to decouple inputs.

“This technique allows us to conceptualize the transition from conventional agricultural practices to a more regenerative approach.”

See also: Growers Reduce Nitrogen and Maintain Yields Using Biostimulants

Summary

  • Efficiency: Improve the efficiency of nitrogen applications by minimizing losses and using the most effective form
  • Substitution: Start using alternative products such as organic fertilizers, biostimulants or nitrogen-fixing bacteria
  • Redesign: Restructure the system with the inclusion of legumes, the kings of nitrogen fixation

1. Efficiency

The first step is to improve the efficiency of existing applications.

This can be achieved in two ways. The first is to use less nitrogen overall by minimizing losses, while the second is to use the most efficient form of nitrogen.

Williams recommends liquid foliar nitrogen sprays over soil applications because they:

  • Prevent nutrient lockout in the soil
  • Eliminate leaching
  • Significantly reduces volatilization
  • Target the leaf to reduce nitrogen levels
  • Overcome ground imbalances
  • Can absorb nutrients when root uptake is low

Ensuring the optimal spray timing is also essential for effective absorption. Spraying when humidity levels are above 70% in the early morning or late afternoon is beneficial, he continues.

If this goal is not achieved, the nitrogen is likely to be washed from the leaf or volatilized into the atmosphere.

Foliar fertilizers are also better absorbed under slightly acidic conditions. The spray pH should be a maximum of 6 but ideally 5 to 5.5. Making sure the pressure and nozzle are correct will also have an impact.

Williams notes that waxy crucifers are less sensitive to foliar nitrogen, so adding a wetter sticker or spray oil to the tank mix can benefit these crops.

Adding a carbon source such as humic or fulvic acid can benefit spray mixtures.

This is because carbon binds with nitrogen to form a larger, more stable molecular complex, which improves absorption and is less likely to be lost to the environment.

Overall, when properly implemented, foliar strategies can be an effective complement to the process of reducing soil applications.

The most effective form

The second way to improve the efficiency of nitrogen is to use its most efficient form.

All living organisms need nitrogen to convert into amino acids to make proteins – the building blocks of life.

Different forms of nitrogen require different amounts of metabolic energy to convert into protein.

Plants are able to metabolize ammonium more efficiently than nitrates.

Nitrate uptake involves a multi-step process, which means the plant expels more energy and requires more of the essential micronutrients to be converted into ammonium and, therefore, into the amino acid glutamine.

This leads to a higher metabolic cost for the plant and this energy could have been used elsewhere, for example for growth.

Shortcut steps

“Plus, we know that plants ultimately want protein. It is a constant energy drain for the plant to convert raw materials into this compound.

“Why not provide peptides and proteins in a more complete form? ” he says.

“After all, plants want nitrogen in an organic form, not an inorganic one, which artificial fertilizer currently provides.

“By shortening these steps, we can deliver nutrients in a more easily usable organic form.”

Plants can take up these larger organic molecules (and even whole bacteria) as well as inorganic forms. Organic forms of nitrogen can be supplied via:

  • Amino acids
  • Protein hydrolysates (vegetable or animal origin)
  • Compost
  • Manure
  • Biosolids

However, the nitrogen content of these substances, such as manure, can vary, so regular testing and a combination of organic and inorganic substances can help strike the right balance.

2. Replacement

Once farmers have improved their efficiency and reduced fertilizer use, they can replace conventional practices with alternatives.

Now that you are using different inputs and methods, it is easier to stop using a given product and replace it with another. It may be, for example, a natural biostimulant or a nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

“Use these products in a system designed to work. Don’t just choose a product and assume it will be the solution.

“For example, microbes need nutrients for optimal nitrogen fixation. Thus, a limiting micronutrient will hinder performance.

“The efficiency and substitution phase are really important first steps and it’s important to transition slowly, but also, you don’t want to get trapped in either phase because the redesign is where the real change happens,” he says.

3. Redesign with legumes

Farmers are often stuck in input dependency because they are constantly buying some input. This is where system redesign comes in – where farming is decoupled from reliance on inputs.

“Imagine if we could redesign our farming system to incorporate more pulses through intercropping into our rotation.

“Legumes are the king of nitrogen fixation, and incorporating them into our system will reduce dependence on nitrogen inputs, striving for a multifunctional system that produces high yielding crops, yet sustains also ecosystems.

As legumes grow, they release a number of root exudates in the form of amino acids, peptides and proteins into the soil that are readily available to crops other than legumes.

Winter Beans © Tim Scrivener

Studies have shown that a legume fixes more atmospheric nitrogen when grown with an intercrop of wheat or maize compared to a bean crop in monoculture, because there are two-way relationships between the crops.

“The non-legume crop induces the bean to fix more nitrogen in order to get more nitrogen in return. If both plants are hosts of mycorrhizal fungi, amino acids can be shared directly by their fungal hyphae,” he explains.

“Also, rather than cultures competing for nutrients, we find that they can work in harmony.

“For example, we generally find that when yield increases, protein decreases and vice versa, but when wheat is successfully grown with an intercrop of beans, we see both an increase in yield and protein,” continues Mr. Williams.

He concludes that this is an area of ​​science that we know very little about, but there are huge opportunities and great potential for farmers to take advantage of incorporating pulses into crop production and reducing dependence on artificial nitrogen in the future.


Joel Williams was a guest speaker at Hutchinson’s Agroecology conference in Birmingham. Mr. Williams consults on soil management, plant nutrition and integrated approaches to sustainable food production and currently lives in Canada.

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RI marijuana products destroyed after testing positive for pesticides https://detodounpoco.net/ri-marijuana-products-destroyed-after-testing-positive-for-pesticides/ Tue, 22 Nov 2022 00:39:36 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/ri-marijuana-products-destroyed-after-testing-positive-for-pesticides/ [ad_1] PROVIDENCE, RI (WPRI) – Nine medical marijuana companies have had batches of cannabis test positive for banned pesticides since testing was made mandatory earlier this year, according to state regulators. The Business Regulation Department says none of the products were sold to patients and any batches that failed pesticide tests were either destroyed or […]]]>

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PROVIDENCE, RI (WPRI) – Nine medical marijuana companies have had batches of cannabis test positive for banned pesticides since testing was made mandatory earlier this year, according to state regulators.

The Business Regulation Department says none of the products were sold to patients and any batches that failed pesticide tests were either destroyed or quarantined pending retesting.

Rhode Island only began enforcing pesticide testing on June 30 of this year, despite selling medical marijuana in the state since 2013.

Medical marijuana patients have for years expressed frustration over the delay in implementing mandatory testing in Rhode Island, which finally began last year with potency testing. Other mandatory tests check for the presence of heavy metals, mold and other contaminants.

There are 17 pesticides banned by the Department of Health, and products are considered positive if they contain more than 10 parts per billion in a lab test.

“It’s a particularly acute problem here in the context of cannabis because, to a large extent, these are products that are ignited and inhaled,” said Matt Santacroce, head of cannabis regulation at DBR.

According to the DBR, the first three medical marijuana dispensaries in the state are among those whose products have tested positive since June 30: Thomas C. Slater Compassion Center in Providence, Rise Dispensary in Warwick (formerly known as of Summit Compassion Center) and Greenleaf. Compassion Center in Portsmouth.

All three dispensaries purchase cannabis from other dispensaries in addition to growing their own.

“The failures that have happened in the compassion centers have happened on the production side of the house,” Santacroce said. “They haven’t reached the business side of the house.”

At the Slater Center, 13 batches of concentrate tested positive for banned pesticides in October, according to the DBR. State regulators visited the facility to witness the destruction of the products on Oct. 11.

In a corrective action plan, Slater says they don’t use banned pesticides and notes that 11 of the 13 batches contained cannabis purchased from outside growers.

“Because [Slater] does not use banned pesticides, it cannot positively identify the source of positive lab tests,” Raymond White, chief operating officer at Slater, wrote in the corrective action plan. “The imposition of mandatory pesticide testing has revealed that some licensed growers have failed to comply with the ban on pesticide use.”

The plan says Slater will take a number of steps, including pre-testing products before they reach the mandatory testing stage.

“In the hundreds of batch tests performed on our oil, a small number showed the presence of banned pesticides,” spokesman Chris Reilly said. “The batches were kept in quarantine and were never transformed into products sold to patients. Lots were destroyed in accordance with state regulations.

“No product has ever been available for sale from any of these lots, and no patient has ever been sold anything from the positive lab tests,” Reilly continued.

Dr. Seth Bock of the Greenleaf Compassion Center also blamed the outdoor growers for bringing the pesticides into the medical dispensary.

“None of Greenleaf’s internal product lines have tested positive for pesticides, as Greenleaf uses only organic pest control methods in accordance with state regulations,” said Dr. Seth Bock, CEO by Greenleaf. “What you are referring to are third-party products made by state-licensed growers and purchased by Greenleaf that failed to meet testing standards. Greenleaf has identified this issue and none of these products we have ever sold from Greenleaf.

The Rise Dispensary in Warwick did not return a phone call seeking comment. This company destroyed its products that tested positive, according to the DBR.

Santacroce said the DBR has no evidence that any company directly sprays banned pesticides on its plants. Produce could have been contaminated with pesticides through someone’s clothing, or even through the HVAC from pesticides sprayed outside.

For example, two of six growers who tested positive told Target 12 that they sprayed bugs outside of their facilities, and their indoor produce later tested positive for those pesticides.

“We had a really big ant problem,” said Mike Cirillo of the RI Tree Service in West Warwick. “We never sprayed anything on the plants.”

Despite spraying for ants outdoors, produce from indoor cannabis cultivation tested positive for the banned pesticide in September. Cirillo said the company has gotten rid of all ant sprays and is now looking for an organic way to get rid of ants outdoors.

“It’s nice to know that they’ve got all these high-quality tests in place for patients,” Cirillo said.

Other growers who tested positive for the banned pesticides were Nova Farms in Central Falls, Cann Cure in Warwick, Jardins Garden in Warwick, STJ in Warwick and RI Cultivation in Cranston.

Blair Fish, chief operating officer of Nova Farms, said the company purchased an existing marijuana crop this year that was used before pesticide testing came into effect, and also owns other facilities. of culture in the building.

“At no time did Nova Farms RI use the pesticide that was discovered during testing,” Fish said.

He said the company voluntarily tested a batch prior to the mandatory testing date of June 30, which tested positive. The lot was destroyed, and the company was remediated and repaired a leak in the roof which could have been a source of cross-contamination.

“We won’t start cultivation operations again until we’re sure there’s no more potential cross-contamination,” Fish said.

Chris Jardin of Jardins Garden, who said his indoor products tested positive after using a small amount of bug spray outdoors to contain a beetle infestation, wondered if the pesticide threshold of the state was too low.

“The 10 parts per billion is way too low,” Jardin said, adding that one of his tests came back detecting 10.1 parts per billion. “That’s nonsense.” He noted that other states have higher thresholds for certain pesticides.

Jardin said its staff had spent weeks sanitizing the facility and was sending baby plants for further testing.

Rhode Island has “some of the strictest tolerance limits for pesticide residues in cannabis across the country,” according to Dr. Jason Iannuccilli of PureVita Labs, who tests Rhode Island cannabis for pesticides.

Iannuccilli said there isn’t enough data to determine the most appropriate threshold for pesticides deemed harmful by federal regulators, which may have led states to set their thresholds “excessively low.”

“There just isn’t a ‘rulebook’ for cannabis to follow right now,” Iannuccilli said. “The federal allowable limits for pesticide residues in our food supply, for example, do not translate directly to smoked cannabis products, because the level of absorption into the bloodstream is different through the gut than through the gut. lungs.”

A spokesperson for the RI Department of Health has confirmed that it has received a request from cannabis business owners to raise the threshold for banned pesticides.

“They asked that the current regulations be reviewed and brought into line with those of other states,” said Annemarie Beardsworth, spokeswoman for the DOH. “These comments are taken into consideration. Any changes or revisions to Rhode Island regulations would be made through the required public process. »

In the meantime, Rhode Island is preparing for recreational marijuana sales starting Dec. 1, which will initially take place at existing medical dispensaries, using existing marijuana growers.

Santacroce said the same testing standards will be used for non-medicinal cannabis, and said recent positive tests for pesticides show the procedures are working.

“We are happy with the way the system is working,” Santacroce said. “We are pleased that no product that failed the imposed pesticide test made it to a point of sale or a patient.”

Steph Machado (smachado@wpri.com) is a Target 12 investigative reporter covering Providence, politics and more for 12 News. Connect with her on Twitter and on Facebook.


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More and more companies are making lab-grown meat – so why isn’t it on sale in European stores? https://detodounpoco.net/more-and-more-companies-are-making-lab-grown-meat-so-why-isnt-it-on-sale-in-european-stores/ Fri, 18 Nov 2022 23:21:57 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/more-and-more-companies-are-making-lab-grown-meat-so-why-isnt-it-on-sale-in-european-stores/ [ad_1] One of the big questions facing humanity right now is how to feed a global population with a growing demand for meat, without destroying the planet in the process. The future of food was on the agenda of WebSummit in Lisbon this month, and executives from two cultured meat companies detailed to Euronews Next […]]]>

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One of the big questions facing humanity right now is how to feed a global population with a growing demand for meat, without destroying the planet in the process.

The future of food was on the agenda of WebSummit in Lisbon this month, and executives from two cultured meat companies detailed to Euronews Next why lab-grown meat may hold the answer.

What their companies – and dozens of others – have demonstrated is that it’s possible to take a small sample of cells from an animal, and from that sample, grow meat in a lab. without the need to raise, rear or kill the animal.

The process was first demonstrated to a global audience nearly a decade ago, when the first lab-grown burger was eaten at a press conference in London.

And just this week, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared the sale of lab-grown chicken for human consumption, following the example of Singapore, the first country to do so in 2020.

“You can’t innovate on a cow”

If humanity is to achieve the climate goals discussed this month at COP27, innovation and change will be needed in the animal agriculture industry.

But as Daan Luining, co-founder and CTO of lab-grown meat company Meatable, told Web Summit: “You can’t innovate on a cow.”

Instead, he calls for more support for the growth of innovation in meat without slaughter.

Luining, who has been in the field for nine years with a background in cellular molecular biology and tissue engineering, helped make the first lab-grown burger in 2013.

His company is developing a minced pork product, with minced beef also in the works – and they hope to launch their first product in Singapore next year.

Is cultured meat the future of meat?

Lab-grown meat advocates point to three key issues around animal agriculture, as it stands, that need to be addressed.

First, the environmental impact is huge, accounting for around 14.5% of all carbon emissions, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). There is also pressure on the resources needed to produce beef.

For example, about 25 kg of dry food is needed to make one kilogram of cow meat, and that same kilogram requires about 15,000 liters of water, according to the Water Footprint Network.

Some studies suggested that replacing traditionally farmed animal meat with lab-grown meat could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 96%.

Then there is the ethical consideration. Some 80 billion animals are killed each year for human consumption, and many of these animals are kept in poor conditions.

Many are not slaughtered in a ‘humane’ manner – defined by the Humane Slaughter Association in the UK, for example, as when ‘an animal is protected from avoidable excitement, pain or suffering’.

And thirdly, there is the issue of food security. Many countries do not have the space or natural resources to raise animals to meet their population’s demand for meat and rely instead on imports.

Europe “on the sidelines”

So why has cultured meat not yet taken off in Europe?

Luining told Euronews Next he found it “outrageous” that the continent was “just standing on the sidelines”.

When asked why his company was launching its products for the first time in Singapore, he replied: “The EU is at the bottom of the priority list because it takes so long.” “As a start-up, we can’t afford that,” he added.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) regulates the industry and there are strict criteria for a new product to be approved for sale in the bloc. Luining explained that the process requires a lot of back-and-forth and he felt frustrated with the regulator’s lack of clarity.

“They’re not very enthusiastic about starting the conversation and helping us understand what they really want from us,” he said.

On the other hand, he said that the authorities in Singapore “have set up a whole body of government to help [us] and have been fantastic. Surely the European Union could take note of this”.

The company will gauge what customers in Singapore think of its lab-grown meat and may eventually use that experience to expand into other markets, such as Europe.

This meat at the moment is ground pork, which can be processed into a variety of products such as sausages or dumplings.

The technology — and costs — behind lab-grown meat

Due to the current state of technology, ground meat is what most companies in this industry currently manufacture.

Such is the case with Ivy Farm, a UK-based cultured meat company that makes minced pork.

“Our technology can identify cells that we can grow outside the animal, basically in large fermentation tanks,” CEO Richard Dillon told Euronews Next.

“And by making them grow, they reproduce. We then create pure muscle, pure fat, and we can put them together to make the healthiest ground meat.”

The company spun off from Oxford University, where two of the original co-founders were based.

“They were looking at where there was the most research on animal mammal culture,” Dillon said.

“And in fact, they are humans. But the mammal that people eat that is closest to humans in terms of biology is the pig. And so it was very convenient,” he explained.

“Secondly, from a business perspective, chicken and pork are the most consumed meats on Earth. So the size of the market and the impacts it could have globally are huge.”

But while the potential market is there, one of the biggest barriers to bringing cultured meat to supermarket shelves — aside from regulations — is cost.

“No one has ever grown mammalian cells on a large scale that would be needed to reduce the cost of feeding people,” Dillon said.

The industry needs to prove it can scale, procuring the large reservoirs and the materials needed to grow the cells inside, he said.

“It basically has to go through a reinvention of that supply chain to get those inputs at scale at food-grade cost instead of biopharmaceutical cost.”

He said great progress has been made since the demonstration of the first lab-grown burger. This burger cost around €250,000 to produce.

“We could do the equivalent now for less than $100 (€100). And we are still at a very small pilot scale. So it will be orders of magnitude with a drop in costs over the next two years.”

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Protein programmers get a helping hand from Cradle’s generative AI • TechCrunch https://detodounpoco.net/protein-programmers-get-a-helping-hand-from-cradles-generative-ai-techcrunch/ Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:01:22 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/protein-programmers-get-a-helping-hand-from-cradles-generative-ai-techcrunch/ [ad_1] Proteins are the molecules that do the work in nature, and an entire industry is emerging around their successful modification and manufacture for various uses. But it takes time and is random; Cradle aims to change that with an AI-powered tool that tells scientists what new structures and sequences will allow a protein to […]]]>

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Proteins are the molecules that do the work in nature, and an entire industry is emerging around their successful modification and manufacture for various uses. But it takes time and is random; Cradle aims to change that with an AI-powered tool that tells scientists what new structures and sequences will allow a protein to do what it wants. The company emerged from stealth today with a substantial funding round.

AI and proteins have been in the news lately, but largely thanks to the efforts of research teams like DeepMind and Baker Lab. Their machine learning models take easily collected RNA sequence data and predict the structure a protein will take – a step that previously took weeks and expensive special equipment.

But as amazing as this ability is in some areas, it’s just a starting point for others. Modifying a protein to make it more stable or to bind to some other molecule involves much more than just understanding its general shape and size.

“If you’re a protein engineer and you want to design a certain property or function in a protein, just knowing what it looks like doesn’t help. It’s like having a picture of a bridge, it doesn’t tell you whether it’s going to collapse or not,” explained Stef van Grieken, CEO and co-founder of Cradle.

“Alphafold takes a sequence and predicts what the protein will look like,” he continued. “We’re the generative sibling of that: you choose the properties you want to engineer, and the model will generate sequences that you can test in your lab.”

Predicting what proteins — especially those new to science — will do on the spot is a difficult task for many reasons, but in the context of machine learning, the biggest problem is that there is not enough data available. So Cradle created much of its own dataset in a wet lab, testing protein after protein and seeing which changes in their sequences seemed to lead to which effects.

Interestingly, the model itself isn’t exactly biotech-specific, but a derivative of the same “great language models” that produced text production engines like GPT-3. Van Grieken noted that these models are not strictly limited to language in how they understand and predict data, an interesting “generalization” feature that researchers are still exploring.

Examples of Cradle UI in action. Picture credits: Cradle

The protein sequences that Cradle ingests and predicts aren’t in any language we know of, of course, but they are relatively simple linear text sequences that have associated meanings. “It’s like an alien programming language,” van Grieken said.

Protein engineers are not helpless, of course, but their work necessarily involves a lot of guesswork. One can be fairly certain that among the 100 sequences they modify is the combination that will produce the desired effect, but beyond that it comes down to exhaustive testing. A little hint here could speed things up considerably and avoid a huge amount of wasted work.

The model works in three basic layers, he explained. First, it evaluates whether a given sequence is “natural”, ie. whether it is a meaningful sequence of amino acids or just random amino acids. It’s akin to a linguistic model that can say with 99% confidence that a sentence is in English (or Swedish, in van Grieken’s example), and that the words are in the correct order. He knows this by “reading” millions of these sequences determined by laboratory analysis.

Next, it examines the protein’s actual or potential meaning in extraterrestrial language. “Imagine we give you a streak, and that’s the temperature at which that streak will crash,” he said. “If you do this for many sequences, you can say not only ‘this looks natural’, but ‘this looks like 26 degrees Celsius.’ This helps the model determine which regions of the protein to focus on.

The model can then suggest sequences to integrate – educated guesses, essentially, but a stronger-than-zero starting point. The engineer or lab can then try it out and bring that data back to the Cradle platform, where it can be re-ingested and used to fine-tune the model based on the situation.

The Cradle team on a nice day at their HQ (van Grieken is in the middle). Picture credits: Cradle

Modifying proteins for a variety of purposes is useful in biotechnology, from drug design to biomanufacturing, and the path from vanilla molecule to custom, effective and efficient molecule can be long and expensive. Any way to shorten it will probably be welcomed, at the very least, by lab technicians who have to perform hundreds of experiments just to get a good result.

Cradle operated on the sly and is now emerging having raised $5.5 million in a funding round co-led by Index Ventures and Kindred Capital, with participation from angels John Zimmer, Feike Sijbesma and Emily Leproust.

Van Grieken said the funding would allow the team to scale up data collection — the more the better when it comes to machine learning — and work on the product to make it “more free- service”.

“Our goal is to reduce the cost and time to market of a biobased product by an order of magnitude,” van Grieken said in the press release, “so that anyone – even ‘two children in their garage” – can bring a biobased product to market.

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How product co-creation studio FirstBuild is changing the way new things are made – TechCrunch https://detodounpoco.net/how-product-co-creation-studio-firstbuild-is-changing-the-way-new-things-are-made-techcrunch/ Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:22:30 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/how-product-co-creation-studio-firstbuild-is-changing-the-way-new-things-are-made-techcrunch/ [ad_1] Crowdfunding, crowdsourcing and small-batch production for the win If you are in charge of R&D at a major manufacturer of household appliances, you have a challenge to meet. You typically produce products in huge quantities with pretty slim margins. In order to recoup your development, tooling, and launch marketing costs, you must create and […]]]>

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Crowdfunding, crowdsourcing and small-batch production for the win

If you are in charge of R&D at a major manufacturer of household appliances, you have a challenge to meet.

You typically produce products in huge quantities with pretty slim margins. In order to recoup your development, tooling, and launch marketing costs, you must create and sell a large number of products. To make sure this is possible, you’ll probably end up doing a bunch of user and market research to make sure you have the best chance of success with your products.

It makes sense, but the business model itself means it’s hard to do anything really risky, which means traditional manufacturers rarely come up with anything truly innovative.

If there was a mushroom fruiting device, would many more people regularly grow mushrooms at home? There was only one way to find out: build one and try to sell it.

This is where FirstBuild comes in. If you’re a small appliance nerd, you might have seen its Opal nugget ice maker, the studio’s first big breakthrough; the Mella mushroom fruiting chamber; its indoor pizza oven; or the Arden Indoor Smoker. I spoke with André Zdanow, President of FirstBuild, to understand where these ideas came from and how the studio is working to try to replicate these successes.

“The most famous example is probably the Opal Nugget ice maker. At first, it wasn’t a product at all – it was a technology that GE Appliances’ refrigeration division was working on,” Zdanow said, explaining that it turned out to be a headache. They wanted to put the “nugget of ice” in a refrigerator, but were unable to determine exactly how big the market would be for such a thing. “It’s actually very complicated to put technology in a refrigerator. In other words, it really was a great idea that engineers had been toying with for years, but in the context of the direction and economics of a multi-billion dollar company, it wasn’t something they could focus on.

The Opal nugget ice maker was FirstBuild’s first commercial success. Picture credits: First build

In a parallel universe, this technology would never have seen the light of day, but instead the engineers came to FirstBuild and wondered what would happen if they put the technology in a separate device, rather than a refrigerator. full size.

“We see a lot of people going to the store and buying this type of ice cream. They call it sonic ice or hospital ice. We decided to develop a prototype and see if people want it to be just an ice maker,” Zdanow explained. This was the genesis of the success of the FirstBuild laboratory. “It all started with rudimentary concepts that looked like an ice maker, but contained nuggets of ice. From there it progressed through industrial design and eventually to a $2.7 million crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter in 2015.”

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Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline by Novel Ni-Doped MOF-Derived Catalysts from ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 https://detodounpoco.net/hydrogenation-of-pyrolysis-gasoline-by-novel-ni-doped-mof-derived-catalysts-from-zif-8-and-zif-67/ Sat, 12 Nov 2022 18:17:28 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/hydrogenation-of-pyrolysis-gasoline-by-novel-ni-doped-mof-derived-catalysts-from-zif-8-and-zif-67/ [ad_1] Larriba, M. et al. Extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from pyrolysis gasolines by ionic liquids based on tetrathiocyanatocobaltate: experimental study and simulation. Fuel process. Technology. 15996-110 (2017). CAS Google Scholar Article Navaro, P. et al. Dearomatization of pyrolysis gasoline by extractive distillation with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide. Fuel process. Technology. 195106156 (2019). CAS Google Scholar Article Zhou, […]]]>

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    South African candy maker launches investigation after food poisoning claims https://detodounpoco.net/south-african-candy-maker-launches-investigation-after-food-poisoning-claims/ Sat, 12 Nov 2022 12:07:11 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/south-african-candy-maker-launches-investigation-after-food-poisoning-claims/ [ad_1] The company said a sample of the product was sent to an independent lab – which checked the batch was free of any contamination that could lead to health issues. FILE: The country’s biggest candy maker said it became aware of the problem after receiving complaints from parents on social media. Image: Richchester Foods/Facebook […]]]>

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    The company said a sample of the product was sent to an independent lab – which checked the batch was free of any contamination that could lead to health issues.

    FILE: The country’s biggest candy maker said it became aware of the problem after receiving complaints from parents on social media. Image: Richchester Foods/Facebook

    JOHANNESBURG – Richester Foods said it launched a full investigation into its Xpop energy cola fizzy lollipops after dozens of learners in Durban complained of food poisoning, allegedly after consuming them.

    The lollipops were sold at a school market this week – when claims of children falling ill from the product started pouring in.

    The country’s biggest candy maker said it became aware of the problem after receiving complaints from parents on social media.

    The company said a sample of the product was sent to an independent lab – which checked the batch was free of any contamination that could lead to health issues.

    Richchester Foods chief executive Hussein Cassim said preliminary results will be released on Monday.

    “I would like to emphasize that we maintain and adhere to the highest standards of health and safety in our manufacturing processes. We are confident that our products are in no way responsible for these claims and we have proven that our products did not cause illness in children.

    Meanwhile, investigations into the causes of the children’s illness continue.

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    Twitter withdraws paid verification after copycats bloom https://detodounpoco.net/twitter-withdraws-paid-verification-after-copycats-bloom/ Fri, 11 Nov 2022 21:15:30 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/twitter-withdraws-paid-verification-after-copycats-bloom/ [ad_1] Twitter suspended signups for its Blue subscription service after the initial rollout was marred by users who received a paid verification badge and then impersonated celebrities, politicians and brands. Twitter users started noticing the change late Thursday night when the Blue subscription option was no longer in the side menu of the app. The […]]]>

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    Twitter suspended signups for its Blue subscription service after the initial rollout was marred by users who received a paid verification badge and then impersonated celebrities, politicians and brands.

    Twitter users started noticing the change late Thursday night when the Blue subscription option was no longer in the side menu of the app. The Twitter Blue signup page always seems to redirect to a page with information about the service but without the possibility of registering.

    It was not immediately clear if or when service would be restored.

    The sudden absence of the service – which CEO Elon Musk has touted as a milestone as Twitter seeks to boost revenue and reduce the prevalence of bots and trolls – adds to a series of product moves during the two weeks that Musk controlled the company.

    A Twitter sales employee said the company decided to pull the verified service from Twitter Blue after a number of accounts began impersonating companies using accounts with paid verification badges, which looked like to Twitter’s original verification badges for public figures and notable brands.

    Even another Elon Musk company, electric car maker Tesla, couldn’t be protected by Twitter from a brand-bashing copycat.

    The employee, who asked to remain anonymous for fear of retaliation, said an account created with the image of pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly caused a particularly serious problem on Thursday when he tweeted: “We are delighted to ‘to announce that insulin is now free’.

    This tweet went viral and remained on the social media platform for at least two hours before being deleted. The real Eli Lilly account tweeted later: “We apologize to those who received a misleading message from a fake Lilly account.”

    Eli Lilly’s share price fell sharply after the fake tweet was posted, as did those of other pharmaceutical companies, including AbbVie, which was also spoofed. Major stock indexes were broadly positive on Thursday, with the S&P 500 posting its biggest rally in two years.

    Internal communications obtained by CNBC indicate that Twitter support initially determined that the tweet impersonating Eli Lilly did not violate the company’s terms of service. A sales employee said he encouraged customers to tweet Elon Musk directly about their issues.

    Twitter has also reintroduced a new “Official” badge on some accounts. The company confirmed this news on one of his Twitter accounts.

    The withdrawal of verified Twitter Blue also comes as the company’s new management considers how to comply with Federal Trade Commission oversight, according to company-wide emails sent to employees on Thursday. evening, obtained by CNBC.

    Twitter is currently under a consent decree from the FTC, which requires it to notify the agency of new products with a written plan, among other things.

    Some employees had expressed doubts about Musk’s willingness to comply with FTC oversight. Earlier in the week, internal communications on a company message board, which were seen by NBC News, showed that employees were concerned that new Twitter executives were asking them to do work that could include a violation of the Consent Decree, or any other laws and regulations.

    Three of Twitter’s top security, safety and privacy executives resigned on Wednesday.

    Musk wrote in a company-wide email Thursday evening: “I can’t stress enough that Twitter will do whatever it takes to comply with both the letter and the spirit of the executive order. consent statement from the FTC. Anything you read to the contrary is absolutely false. The same is true of all other government regulatory matters where Twitter operates.

    Musk did not immediately respond to an email seeking comment. The FTC did not respond to an emailed request for comment.

    Attorney Alex Spiro added in a separate email Thursday, “We spoke to the FTC today about our ongoing obligations and are having a constructive ongoing dialogue. We will of course remain in compliance with the consent decree and the service legal takes care of it and will be happy to answer all your questions.

    At his other businesses, Tesla and SpaceX, Musk often clashes with government regulators. For example, he was charged with civil securities fraud by the Securities and Exchange Commission, proclaimed that he disrespected financial regulators, and accused them in court of trying to “chill” his rights to free speech by monitoring his communications with Tesla shareholders. .

    He also accused federal vehicle safety regulators NHTSA of hiring a safety adviser who was biased against Tesla and of using “outdated and inaccurate terminology.” And he accused the Federal Aviation Administration of having a “fundamentally flawed regulatory structure,” after it failed to quickly approve a SpaceX test launch.

    Justin Brookman, a former FTC official and now director of technology policy at advocacy group Consumer Reports, said Musk would risk Twitter’s finances if he was found to be violating the terms of the consent decree. And the cost will likely be far greater than the $150 million fine imposed last spring on the social media giant by federal regulators on charges of deceptive practices.

    “We’re off the map here, and all eyes are on him,” Brookman said of Musk.

    He added that it would be a “serious violation” of the consent decree if Musk was found to have removed certain privacy or security practices or launched new products without proper security controls. Additionally, the new paid checkmark program under the Twitter Blue subscription service will raise red flags with the FTC as it has already led to the impersonation of celebrities and brands in a potentially detrimental, Brookman said.

    “Assuming someone’s identity is most playful, and many make fun of Elon, but there’s a lot of potential for mischief,” Brookman said. “And after many privacy or security officers have left or been fired, you have to wonder if Twitter security is still constantly looking for security vulnerabilities like it should or is there a callback in the security efforts and whether this will increase a risk of system failure.

    William Kovacic, an antitrust professor at George Washington University School of Law who served as FTC chairman during the George W. Bush administration, said the exodus of several C-level executives will sound alarm bells. with federal regulators, and at the very least, they want to know what promises Musk can make to ensure Twitter’s security measures haven’t eroded.

    If Twitter is found in violation of the consent decree, Musk would face significant fines similar to the $5 billion settlement Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg reached with the FTC in 2019 over alleged data breaches. user privacy, Kovacic added.

    “Not only will you have to write a big check, but you will see the imposition of additional checks,” he said.

    Twitter’s consent decree doesn’t require its CEO to certify compliance, but the FTC could require Musk to personally file reports confirming that all facets of the agreement are being followed, just as Zuckerberg had to do as part of it. Facebook’s rules.

    Musk “would get the Zuckerberg deal over,” Kovacic said.


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    Companies backed by Brett Favre accused of taking $2.1 million in social funds, exaggerating NFL relations https://detodounpoco.net/companies-backed-by-brett-favre-accused-of-taking-2-1-million-in-social-funds-exaggerating-nfl-relations/ Tue, 08 Nov 2022 17:53:00 +0000 https://detodounpoco.net/companies-backed-by-brett-favre-accused-of-taking-2-1-million-in-social-funds-exaggerating-nfl-relations/ [ad_1] According to documents obtained by ESPN, two companies backed by Brett Favre are being sued by the state of Mississippi for allegedly taking millions of dollars in welfare funds meant to go to families in need. Prevacus and PresolMD, both founded by Jake VanLandingham, tried to develop a nasal spray and cream that prevents […]]]>

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    According to documents obtained by ESPN, two companies backed by Brett Favre are being sued by the state of Mississippi for allegedly taking millions of dollars in welfare funds meant to go to families in need.

    Prevacus and PresolMD, both founded by Jake VanLandingham, tried to develop a nasal spray and cream that prevents and lessens the effects of concussions. They were accused of taking more than $2.1 million from Mississippi welfare funds. Favre is the biggest outside investor in Prevacus, according to the lawsuit, and he claims to have invested $1 million in the companies.

    “I had no idea it was welfare, and I’ve always been an honest research person,” VanLandingham said in an interview with ESPN.

    In addition to allegedly accepting money for welfare programs, Prevacus and PresolMD have been accused of exaggerating their ties to the NFL and the effectiveness of their products.

    In marketing materials from Prevacus and PresolMD, they claimed to have “provided product samples and maintained relationships with six active NFL teams.” VanLandingham claimed that Favre had established links with several team doctors and coaches, but he could not recall which teams contacted specifically. He also didn’t know if any samples had been used by NFL players.

    The state lawsuit alleges that some of the money Prevacus and PresolMD received from Mississippi went through the Mississippi Community Education Center (MCEC), which was headed by Nancy New. In April, New pleaded guilty to bribery of a public official, fraud against the government, wire fraud and racketeering.

    The lawsuit claims a “sham” deal was created to benefit defendants like New, VanLandingham and Favre.

    The Hall of Fame quarterback has come under fire for his alleged involvement in other areas of the Mississippi welfare scandal. Favre was also accused of receiving social funds to build a new volleyball facility at his alma mater Southern Miss. Text messages from August 3, 2017 claim that Favre asked New about the confidentiality of payments made to him.

    “If you were to pay me, would the media know where it came from and how much? he wrote in the text conversation, as seen in the photos.

    In a statement to Fox News, Favre maintained that he was unaware the money was going to a welfare program.

    “Nobody ever told me, and I didn’t know it, that funds for welfare recipients were going to the University or to me,” Favre said. “I tried to help my alma mater USM, a public university in the state of Mississippi, to raise funds for a wellness center. My goal was and always will be to improve the athletic facilities at my university .”

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